An infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites from the Plasmodium family that can be transmitted by the bite of the Anopheles mosquito or by a contaminated needle or transfusion. Falciparum malaria is the most deadly type.
Malaria produces recurrent attacks of chills and fever. Malaria kills an estimated 660,000 people each year.
First record of “periodic fevers” from China in 2700 BC.
Term MALARIA derived from Italian for “bad air” mala – area.
Also known as AGUE or MARSH FEVER.
First effective treatment was the bark of the cinchona tree (contains quinine).
Grows in the Peruvian Andes.
Jesuits introduced it to Europe in 1640.
The blood stage of malaria life cycle was recognized in 19th and early 20th century.
The latent form of the disease (in the liver) was only recognized in 1980s.
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA –
Malaria epidemiology is the study of the spread of malaria and the factors that influence this, important thing to consider in studying the epidemiology of malaria is the relationship between host, agent and environment
Precise statistics unknown – most cases are rural.
400 – 900 million of cases per year.
Affects about 515 million people per year.
Kills between 1- 3 million per year.
One death every 30 seconds.
THE BASIS OF HOMOEOPATHY –
The first idea of the fundamental doctrine of homeopathy – Similia Similibus Curentur – seems to have entered Hahnemann’s mind in the year 1790, the forty-fifth year of his life, while he was engaged in translating Cullen’s ‘Materia Medica’ into German.
Dr. Hahnemann resolved to make trials with it on his own person-
“I took by way of experiment, twice a day, four drams of good China (Cinchona). My feet, finger ends, etc., at first became cold; I grew languid and drowsy, then my heart began to palpitate, and my pulse grew hard and small, intolerable anxiety, trembling, prostration, throughout all my limbs; then pulsation in the head, redness of my cheeks, thirst, and in short, all these symptoms which are ordinarily characteristic of intermittent fever, made their appearance, one after the other, yet without the peculiar chilly, shivering rigor, briefly, even those symptoms which are of regular occurrence and especially characteristic – as the dullness of mind, the kind of rigidity in all the limbs, but above all the numb, disagreeable sensation, which seems to have its seed in the periosteum, over every bone in the body – all these made their appearance. This paroxysm lasted two or three hours each time, and recurred if I repeated this dose, not otherwise; I discontinued it, and was in good health.”
“What did Hahnemann experience in 1790 after ingesting four drams of Cinchona bark approximately 0.447 grams of quinine?”
He felt languid and drowsy, which corresponds to hypotension. He noticed palpitations, signifying cardiac irregularity, most probably ventricular tachycardia. Pulsation in the head is a good description of headache, as is redness in cheeks of a rash. Prostration through limbs signifies weakness. We all feel thirst when we are feverish, so did Hahnemann. Cold fingers and feet with trembling are typical of any allergic reaction. Hahnemann’s ‘disagreeable sensation’ means that he felt generally unwell.
It can be concluded that Hahnemann suffered from hypersensitivity to quinine. This means that the fundamental doctrine of homeopathy – Similia Similibus Curentur – is based on a pathological condition of its founder, Dr.Samuel Hahnemann, an allergy to quinine.
“In view of what has been said, the following homeopathic statement: ‘Cinchona bark was to Hahnemann what the falling apple was to Newton and the swinging lamp to Galileo’, brings a new light to the whole teaching of homeopathy.”
INCUBATION PERIOD OF MALARIA –
Following the infective bite by the Anopheles mosquito, a period of time goes by before the first symptoms appear. The incubation period in most cases varies from 7 to 30 days.
CAUSES AND TYPES OF MALARIA –
Malaria can occur if a mosquito infected with the Plasmodium parasite bites you.
There are four kinds of malaria parasites that can infect humans-
1. Plasmodium vivax – It is less virulent than Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest of the five, but vivax malaria can lead to severe disease and death due to splenomegaly. P. vivax is carried by the female Anopheles mosquito, since it is only the female of the species that bites.
2. Plasmodium ovale – was the last of the malaria parasites of humans to be described. The pronounced stippling of the infected erythrocyte and its tertian periodicity led early investigators to consider it a variant form of Plasmodium vivax.
3. Plasmodium malariae – Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in humans. It is one of several species of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans including Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax which are responsible for most malarial infection.
4. Plasmodium falciparum – Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular protozoan parasite of humans, and the deadliest species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. It is transmitted through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. causes a more severe form of the disease and those who contract this form of malaria have a higher risk of death. An infected mother can also pass the disease to her baby at birth. This is known as congenital malaria.
Malaria is transmitted by blood, so it can also be transmitted through:
An organ transplant
Use of shared needles or syringes.
HOW IS MALARIA SPREAD? –
Needles used by a person with malaria can also cause the spread of the disease, if someone else uses the same needle without cleaning it properly first. Malaria is transmitted by infected anopheles mosquitoes. It is mostly spread by the female Anopheles mosquito. It also can be spread by infected blood.
PATHOGENESIS OF MALARIA –
PLASMODIUM LIFE CYCLE –
SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA –
Symptoms of malaria include –
1. Fever – High fever (can often be 104° F and higher)
2. Flu-like illness,
3. Extreme sweating,
4. Shaking chills,
6. Muscle aches,
10. Diarrhea may also occur.
Malaria may cause anaemia and jaundice because of the loss of red blood cells.
Symptoms usually appear between 10 and 15 days after the mosquito bite.
STAGES OF DISEASE –
1.Cold stage –
Feeling of intense cold
Vigorous shivering, rigor ,
Lasts 15 – 60 minutes
2. Hot stage –
Dry burning skin
Lasts 2 – 6 hours.
3. Sweating stage –
Profuse sweating ,
Exhausted weak – sleep
Lasts 2 – 4 hours
COMPLICATIONS OF MALARIA –
If not treated, malaria can quickly become life-threatening by disrupting the blood supply to vital organs.
Infection with one type of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, if not promptly treated, may cause-
1. Kidney failure,
3. Mental confusion,
In many parts of the world, the parasites have developed resistance to a number of malaria medicines.
DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA –
In order to make a malaria diagnosis, the healthcare provider may ask a number of questions concerning:
1. Current symptoms
2. Medical conditions
3. Family medical history
4. Current medications
5. Recent travel history.
LABORATORY – thin, thick smears, antigen capture ,EIA , PCR etc.
CLINICAL – platelets, regularly intermittent fever.
OTHER TESTS –
HOW TO PREVENT MALARIA –
Awareness of the risk of malaria and the risk of complications associated with it is the first step in prevention.
1. Sleep in a room with screens on the windows and doors.
2. Use a mosquito net over your bed.
3. Spray the net with permethrin, a spray that repels mosquitoes.
4. Protect yourself with a bug repellent spray that contains no more than 35% of a chemical called DEET.
5. Avoid going outdoors without protection in the evening, when mosquitoes are mostly active.
6. Wear light-colored pants and shirts with long sleeves.
7 .Prevention of mosquito bites. A single bite is enough to transmit malaria infection.
8. Antimalarial tablets for prevention of infection. …
9. Immediate diagnosis after onset of symptoms helps prevent complications of malaria.
HOME REMEDIES FOR MALARIA –
1. Basil –
Holy basil leaves are a beneficial remedy in the prevention of malaria. Make a paste using eleven grams of holy basil leaves with three grams of black pepper powder. This mixture can be consumed daily in the cold stages of malarial fever. This will check the severity of the disease.
Chirayata is a herb which is botanically known as Swertia andrographis paniculata. It is useful for treating intermittent malarial fevers. It helps to lower the temperature.
Take 250 ml of water, add 15 gms of chirayata, 2 cloves and a stick of cinnamon and boil them together. One to two teaspoons of this liquid can be consumed twice a day.
3. Lemon –
Lemon plays a vital role to reduce the quartan type of malarial fever. Take 4 to 5 drops of lime, add the juice of one lemon and dissolve it in one glass of water. This mixture needs to be consumed before the onset of fever.
4. Alum –
Alum needs to be dry roasted and powdered. A teaspoon of alum powder needs to be taken four hours before the expected fever attack and half a teaspoon after two hours of the attack. It will give great relief from malaria.
One of the best home remedies for malaria weakness due to a fever is fenugreek seeds. This type of seeds can support effectively in boosting fast recovery from malaria by fighting the parasites and boosting your immune system.
6. Datura –
Datura is an Indian herbal remedy which is very good and powerful for dealing with the symptoms of malaria. The leaves of Indian datura are an ideal home remedy for the tertian type of malaria.
HOW TO USE –
You should add 2 ½ freshly sprouted datura leaves and make them into the form of pills by rubbing them onto jaggery. You should take this at least 2 hours before the onset of the paroxysm.
7. Ginger –
A popular treatment for malaria is the use of ginger, fortunately, ginger is easy to access and can be boiled down into a powerful decoction that will boost your immune system.
Ginger’s active ingredient gingerol, and its unique hydrocarbons are known for their anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities in the body.
8. Warm Water Enema –
Malaria also infect the bowels, thats why diarrhea is a common symptom, so it is important to keep the bowels clean, and not provide a new place for the parasite to thrive.
A warm water enema can keep the bowels clean, while also cutting back on inflammation.
Precautions Related Diet During Malaria –
1. The diet of the patient is very crucial during malaria.
2. When the fever is severe during the initial stage of malaria, the patient must go on an orange juice fast.
3. After the fever has subsided from severe to low grade, the patient must be given only fresh fruits and raw vegetables.
4. Patients suffering from malaria must avoid the intake of processed foods, refined oils, canned foods, oily and spicy food, etc.
5. The allopathic treatment of malaria as prescribed by a doctor along with home remedies will help in getting adequate relief.
HOMOEOPATHIC REMEDIES FOR MALARIA –
Fever may return every week. Chill generally in the afternoon , thirst before chill ,drinks little but often. Easy perspiration. Symptoms worst every alternate day.
In prolonged malarial fevers with neuralgia. It cures such fevers.
Chill daily at 3 p.m. Painful swelling of the various veins during chill. Shivering even in a warm room.
Heavily coated tongue. Bitter taste. Great pains in the joint and thirst during chill. Frontal headache. Violent shivering.
In the later stages of malaria when the liver and spleen are enlarged.
A dose given in the beginning when the fever is not high either cures malaria or cuts shorts its course and avoid further complications.
Fever returns from 9 – 11 am. Continued chill, constipation. It should not be given during fever, else the fever will increase.
Before fever when the temperature is not more than 98 degree F, a dose or two at an interval of an hour reduces the chances of fever coming on.
It is given in case of chronic malaria.
Post critical temperature of a remittent type. Repeat every 2 hours.
10.BOLDO FRAGRANS Q-
Disturbed liver after malaria.
And at last I want to say my readers, prevent yourself from mosquito, maintain hygiene, eat healthy diet and fruits, hydrate your body with plenty of water. TAKE CARE……